2. The Greenhouse Effect answers the question "Why doesn't all the heat disappear into space overnight? Some gases (water vapour, methane, nitrous-oxide and carbon-dioxide) slow heat escaping to space due to their radiative properties. Gravitational effects of the whole atmosphere also help keep us warm. For detailed explanation see
4. The sun is the main driver of heating on Earth, but its' variations in amount of radiance are small in comparison to variation in Earth's surface temperature.
10. The Atlantic Meridonal Oscillation , like ENSO, affects surface temperature. It's most well-known component is the warm Gulf Stream which keeps the British Isles warmer than other land at the same latitude.
A simple intro can be found at
And for a more complex look at the pros and cons see the series of posts by Tamsin Edwards, climate modeller